Beans, which have many varieties, are quite easy to grow.
In summary, what you need to know:
Last name : Phaseolus vulgaris
Family : Fabaceae
Type : Annual
Height : 40 to 400 cm
Exposure : Sunny
Ground : Light, not too wet
Harvest : 2 to 4 months after sowing depending on the species.
Maintenance consists of small actions that will help you have a good harvest and avoid disease.
Bean sowing takes place directly in place in spring and summer
- April to August for green beans
- April to June for shelled beans
We will have to wait for the mid-may for regions further north but we can start from april if you live in the south.
- We must wait for the end of any frost before sowing and the soil should have a temperature of 10-12 °.
- If you fear the return of a few frosts, protect your seedling
- Space the planting out in time in order to prolong the harvest as much as possible
Thebean Eastsensitive to freshness and therefore requires good sunshine.
Avoid too abundant watering because this plantdon't like humidity.
You will therefore choose alimited watering when the soil is dry and without wetting the foliage.
Bean sowing technique:
It is necessary to sow when the temperature of the soil exceeds 15 ° and ideally 18 °.
- Sow in line and thin out to about 40 cm or in pockets at the rate of 4/5 seeds per pocket.
- Beans grow very poorly in compact, clayey soil.
Regarding the varieties of kidney beans, they are the easiest to grow because they don't need to be staked.
- Space your seedlings in a row of at least 4-5 cm
- Dig furrows 2 or 3 cm deep and place a seed every 4 cm approximately
- Space each row 40 cm
Regarding the varieties of row beans, snap and shell beans
- Sowing in a pocket at the rate of one pocket approximately every 40 cm
- Space each row a minimum of 70 cm
About 15 days after the beans have emerged, it is good to butter the earth until the first 2 leaves
- Take the opportunity to hoe the soil and repeat the operation as soon as the soil becomes hard on the surface
- Secure the oars for the row beans to make them climb.
How to fix the beans on the oars?
Row beans can climb up to 3 meters in height and so it is important to give them support to climb and settle down.
The technique involves planting oars on the outside of 2 rows, tilting them inward and tying them at the top with a horizontal oar.
The oars should be 3 m high and should be made of bamboo or hazelnut to support the weight but also the humidity.
You will install oars every 40 cm or so so that the beans can cover the entire surface.
Harvesting and storing beans
How do you know when is the right time to harvest the beans so that they are neither too ripe nor too young?
- We harvest thegreen beans when they are halfway through their final size, they are 12 to 15 cm long.
- Do not wait for the skin to harden before harvesting the beans.
- If harvested too late, they will become stringy which is unpleasant to eat ...
For other types of beans such aseat all, we will wait for the formation of grains.
Bean harvest frequency:
The beans should ideally be harvested every 2 to 3 days in order to have good rotation and allow the plant to continue producing correctly.
The mangetout beans harvest will be spaced out a little more apart (approximately every 3 days).
Conservation of beans:
Beans do not store very long unless they are frozen.
- the beans can be stored for 2 to 3 days in a cool and ventilated place
- In the freezer, several months without problem.
You can blanch your beans by immersing them in boiling water for 5 minutes before cooling them in cold water, you will then keep them in the freezer.
The main diseases that affect beans are anthracnose, rust and grease.
- Theanthracnose is characterized by the appearance of brown spots on the leaves.
- The rust is characterized by the appearance of an orange-yellow (rust-like) spot on the leaves.
- The fat which is actually a fungus and is characterized by the appearance of yellow spots on the leaves.
The best treatment against these diseases is spraying Bordeaux mixture as a preventive measure and as a basic treatment when the weather is hot and humid (especially after a period of rain).
In regards to parasites, we find the aphid, slugs, tetranics or the famous bean weevil.
Rich in vitamins, beans also have very good nutritional value, making them a great side dish.