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Breeding methods in horticultural crops

Breeding methods in horticultural crops


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Crop breeding is the art and science of improving important agricultural plants for the benefit of humankind. Crop breeders work to make our food, fiber, forage, and industrial crops more productive and nutritious. Crops provide for an expanding global population with increasing dietary expectations. Environmental protection is also improved by the work of crop breeders.

Content:
  • PLNT*6340 Plant Breeding
  • Breeding Horticultural Crops
  • Crop breeding
  • Breeding of Fruit and Plantation Crops 2 + 1
  • We apologize for the inconvenience...
  • The Basics of Breeding Horticultural Crops
  • Genome-editing technologies and their potential application in horticultural crop breeding
  • INCONVENTIONAL BREEDING TECHNIQUES FOR FRUIT CROP IMPROVEMENT
  • Pocket K No. 13: Conventional Plant Breeding
  • HORT 775 - Plant Breeding Methods in Horticulture
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PLNT*6340 Plant Breeding

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Breeders want to provide agrarians with optimally adapted crops. This requires combining many positive characteristics in one single variety. The desired properties include a very good yield; resistance to pathogens; a high starch, protein or sugar content; and good lodging in the field.

To be able to combine all these properties in one single variety, parent plants carrying the desired characteristics are cross-bred. This creates a filial generation.

In the best-case scenario, this will include a few individual plants that carry the positive traits of both parents. Only then does the crossing experiment achieve the desired results. In a next step, breeders cross-breed this offspring with other plants that have other desired properties.

Several cross-breeding stages later, a new line is created that ultimately combines all beneficial characteristics and, after several testing phases, can be registered as a new variety. This process is time and labor intensive. It must be carefully planned and implemented over several years.

After the first crossbreeding of two parent plants far left , breeders crossing new plants into the offspring again and again. In the end—often only after many years—a plant with the desired properties is finally achieved. Selection also called screening is the oldest form of plant breeding. Around 12, years ago, humans initially cultivated wild cereal grains.

Early farmers purposefully held back the seed of the largest and most productive plants. These seeds were then sown again the following year, while all other plants were excluded from the breeding process.

This allowed the desired properties of the plants to assert themselves more and more over time. Among other things, yield was increased. If this selection process is repeated often enough, eventually only almost homozygotic plants with regard to the selected characteristic remain that have the desired characteristics.

Without knowing the genetic principles, the first farmers managed to carry out selective breeding through accurate observations and their experience. One of the first cultivated cereal crops was wild einkorn wheat; Triticum urartu. It grows only a few small grains and its ears are brittle. Constant selection of the best individual plants then led to cultivated einkorn Tritium monococcum with larger grains and solid ears.

The principle of selection: For example, breeders retain the seeds of the largest plants in a crop. They sow this seed the following year. Over the course of years or even decades, the desired, larger plants continue to prevail. Parental plants bearing the desired characteristics are crossed with each other.

The seed of the largest and most productive plants are sown again. Here researchers cross two parent lines whose desired properties complement each other as much as possible. The best plants are selected and crossed again. Complete cells are regenerated from the individual cells of a plant using nutrient media in the laboratory.

Here, the characteristics of a developed parent, line or hybrid are evaulated in the field. Modern technology for automated analysis is used. Here, individual genes or gene segments on DNA are deliberately inserted into the genome of a crop.With the help of these methods, individual components of DNA can be targeted and precisely changed.

Did you mean? Suggested search terms Suggested Search Results. Your e-mail address. Registered by:. Stay signed in. Log in. Forgot password. E-mail has been sent. You have not received an e-mail? Mehr Informationen Back to the login Back to the login Back to the login. Cross and selection. Overview In short Parental plants bearing the desired characteristics are crossed with each other. Advantages Original and fundamental type of plant breeding Disadvantages Requires a lot of time to achieve the desired result Development Selection since about 12, BC in modern-day Anatolia and the Zagros Mountains modern-day Iran.

Crossing Breeders want to provide agrarians with optimally adapted crops. Selection screening Selection also called screening is the oldest form of plant breeding.

An overview of our breeding methods. Line breeding Here researchers cross two parent lines whose desired properties complement each other as much as possible. Hybrid breeding In hybrid breeding, two genetically different parent lines are produced.

Cell and tissue culture Complete cells are regenerated from the individual cells of a plant using nutrient media in the laboratory. Molecular Markers With the help of molecular markers, plant characteristics are analyzed. Phenotyping Here, the characteristics of a developed parent, line or hybrid are evaulated in the field. Genetic Engineering Here, individual genes or gene segments on DNA are deliberately inserted into the genome of a crop.

Genetic research Here, the holistic structure and biological functions of the plant genome are explored. Your contact Stephan Krings.


Breeding Horticultural Crops

Reproduction is a biological process by which living organisms produce more individuals of their own kind. There are two modes of plant reproduction: asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction in plants consists of alternating, multicellular haploid and diploid generations. In angiosperms, the female gametophyte is the embryo sac and the male gametophyte is the pollen. The haploid egg and sperm fuse to form diploid zygotes, from which new sporophytes develop.

Specific traditional breeding methods are also covered, on specific applications for fruits, vegetables and ornamental crop species.

Crop breeding

As such, they have a significant potential for the plant breeding and agri-food industry, as they entail technical advances, economic savings and the improvement of crop characteristics. First of all, NBTs have technical advantages compared to traditional plant breeding techniques. Some techniques such as ODM and ZFN allow site-specific and targeted changes in the genetic material of the plants, and for many of the techniques, the genetically modified code for the desired trait is only present in the first plant, but not in their offspring. Secondly, NBTs have economic advantages , as the use of these techniques reduce the necessary time for plant breeding compared to conventional approaches for which breeding can take up to 10 years , thus leading to lower production costs. Crop improvements as a result of NBTs include the resistance of plants to diseases and drought tolerance, which can lead to higher yields, as well as higher nutritional qualities and storage or processing qualities. New Plant Breeding Techniques are currently in an uncertain situation regarding their legal classification, as there is considerable debate on how these practices should be regulated and whether they or some of them should fall within the scope of the EU GMO legislation. The general principle is that companies can register their new seed varieties in the national catalogue of one of the EU Member states, which needs to notify the Commission, after which the seed variety will be registered in the Common Catalogue of the EU. The DUS-tests allow for the identification and description of varieties, while VCU trials test the agronomic performance of the plants resulting from the seeds, for instance on their yields. In order to be registered in the catalogue, the VCU tests need to show that the seed offers better results in terms of cultivation or use than other varieties that are available on the market. In general, DUS tests are conducted over a period of 2 years, while the VCU trials usually last between 2 and 3 years.

Breeding of Fruit and Plantation Crops 2 + 1

Thomas J. Horticultural Plant Breeding is a complete and comprehensive resource for the development of new cultivars or clones of horticultural crops. It covers the basic theories that underpin plant breeding and applies Mendelian, quantitative and population inheritance practices in smaller populations where the individual plant has high value.Specific traditional breeding methods are also covered, with an emphasis on how these methods are adapted for horticultural species.

This is a complete list of courses recommended for the Plant Breeding M. If you'd like to see which of these courses are currently open for registration, visit our courses page and select the "Programs" filter, then choose "Plant Breeding M.

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This course examines principles of plant breeding in self- and cross-pollinated crops. Additional topics include crop domestication, mating systems, heritability, gain from selection, disease resistance, polyploidy, marker assisted selection and government regulations. Extra work is required of graduate students. Please refer to Web Advisor for class schedule and location. Rapid Cycling Brassicas - A population of B.

The Basics of Breeding Horticultural Crops

Biotech Articles. Publish Your Research Online. Article Summary: In modern agricultural fields several new methods are used for selecting and breeding plants with good traits for creating new plant line with high yeild and resistance to pests and disease Crop production can be improved by breeding new varieties of crops having higher yield. The main aim of plat breeding is to produce new crops superior to the existing ones. By this methods new varieties of crops having higher yield, resistant to pests and diseases can be groomed.

New breeding technologies applied to horticultural crops (such as genome editing) Progress and impact of breeding methods (genomic selection.

Genome-editing technologies and their potential application in horticultural crop breeding

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INCONVENTIONAL BREEDING TECHNIQUES FOR FRUIT CROP IMPROVEMENT

The responses were numerous and wide-ranging. Edited and sometimes paraphrased versions are below. John Clark, University of Arkansas. I continue to believe that the optimum selection of the diversity of characters needed in a successful variety must be identified by someone experienced and trained in the art of plant breeding. The plant will continue to be evaluated in the environment in which it is to be grown; there are simply too many variables to account for otherwise. However, methods used in plant breeding are rapidly changing.

New plant breeding techniques NPBTs aim to overcome traditional breeding limits for fruit tree species, in order to obtain new varieties with improved organoleptic traits and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and to maintain fruit quality achieved over centuries by clonal selection.

Pocket K No. 13: Conventional Plant Breeding

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HORT 775 - Plant Breeding Methods in Horticulture

Plant breeding has been described as the art and science of the genetic improvement of plants. It essentially involves using the heritable genetic variability in plants to develop varieties with certain targeted, desirable traits, such as high yield, disease resistance and superior fruit quality. Breeding of horticultural crops, such as tomatoes and strawberries, may use somewhat different methodologies than those used in agronomic crops e. Both tomatoes and strawberries are economically important products, and as such many breeding programs exist that focus on the improvement of these crops.



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