translating-words-of-buddha-logo1For five days in March, several lamas and many of the world’s leading Tibetan Buddhist translators came together at the splendid Deer Park Institute in the Himalayan foothills of Northern India for Translating the Words of the Buddha, an impeccably organized conference that was several years in the planning. The aim was to discuss the current state and future direction of Tibetan Buddhist translation, but as we arrived few of us had any idea what to expect.

From the very beginning however, it was clear that this would be an extraordinary event. For one thing, there was our spontaneous audience with the Gyalwang Karmapa while en route to Bir. Then, there was the unprecedented gathering of illustrious lamas and translators, including Jigme Khyentse Rinpoche, Tulku Pema Wangyal Rinpoche, Dzigar Kongtrul Rinpoche, Doboom Tulku Rinpoche, Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche, Ven. Matthieu Ricard, Robert Thurman and Gene Smith—so many luminaries, in fact, that some of us worried that an act of sabotage or a stray missile might set back the transmission of the Dharma to the West by several decades.

But, above all, there was Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche’s defining and momentous keynote speech. Standing before the Institute’s magical Manjushri statue, modelled on one of the most sacred images in Tibet, he announced: “The stakes are high. It’s our generation who will shoulder the responsibility for ensuring that the Buddhadharma continues to flourish in the world. We need to make a thorough and effective plan for the future, and we must put it into action.”

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Both Khyentse Rinpoche and the conference chairman, Dzogchen Pönlop Rinpoche, wasted no time in revealing what that plan would be. Rather than focus on the works of Tibetan masters—as we had all largely been doing up to that point—they suggested we must turn our collective attention and resources to the vast Tibetan Buddhist canon, comprised of the Kangyur, the ‘Words of the Buddha’, and the Tengyur, the commentaries (śāstra in Sanskrit) of the great Indian masters.

Khyentse Rinpoche told us frankly: “If I were given the chance to set our priorities, what would be the top of my list? Without doubt I would have to say that the teachings of the Buddha—the sutras—should take precedence over the shastras. Then, as the shastras written by Indian authors are more authoritative and carry more weight, I would say that they should be translated before those of the Tibetan authors.”

“Painful as it is for me to admit,” he continued, “Tibetans often promote the teachings of their own teachers far more than those of the Buddha… Today, as a result, our vision is quite narrow, and instead of dedicating our limited resources to translating the ‘Words of the Buddha’, we pour them into translating the teachings of individual lineage gurus, their biographies, their long-life prayers, and prayers for the propagation of the teachings of individual schools.”

Dzogchen Pönlop Rinpoche, in his speech, told us: “It would be quite ironic to claim to be a Buddhist but have no idea what the Buddha taught.” It is therefore crucial, he said, that western Buddhists have access to the words of the Buddha.

Later in the week, His Holiness the Dalai Lama also spoke to us of the importance of a return to the Buddha’s own words and especially the classical Indian commentaries. Candid as ever, he explained that the writings of the Indian masters contained in the Tengyur are indispensable aids to understanding the words of the Buddha, and more applicable to the modern world than the works of later Tibetan teachers. “Tibetan authors,” he said, “often took it for granted that their writings would be read by Buddhists, whereas the Indian masters never took that for granted, leading to a big difference in how their teachings were presented… Indian masters, like Nagarjuna, Dignaga and Dharmakirti, presented the Buddha’s teaching through reasoning and logic, which is why they are so relevant to today’s world, in which many people are sceptical about religion.”

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Excitement was generated on the second day of the conference when we received a letter from Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche announcing that his Dharmachakra Translation Committee would appoint fifteen full-time translators to the project of translating the Tibetan canon. Then, in a second message, this time on video, he went on to say that his group would commit to translate the entire Tantra section of the Kangyur. This precipitated a unique wave of ‘bidding’, as other lamas made similar commitments on behalf of their groups and individual translators volunteered to work on particular texts. Buoyed and emboldened by all these pledges, which made the plan seem that much more realistic and achievable, we somehow set a goal of translating the entire Kangyur, and a substantial portion of the Tengyur and related Tibetan commentaries—amounting to perhaps as many as two hundred large volumes in total—within the next twenty-five years.

Outside the plenary sessions there were group discussions on issues like translator training, resources, funding and peer review. Many of these topics were also addressed informally, during mealtimes and especially on the long bus rides to and from Himachal Pradesh. There was obviously much to talk about and far too little time to cover it all adequately, but steps were taken towards establishing what Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche called “an ongoing conference… that never closes because all the attendees continue to consult and work together.”

As the days unfolded, there was a growing sense that we were witnessing history in the making, an impression that had little to do with the reporters and photographers, the team of bloggers offering instant updates on our progress via the internet, or the slightly incongruous Bhutanese television crew clad in their traditional robes and knee-length socks. By the close of proceedings, we had created something provisionally called the Buddhist Literary Heritage Project, with Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche, after repeated requests, agreeing to be its leader. We had finalized goals for the next five, twenty-five and one hundred years, and drawn up a long list of pledges from the various translators and groups involved. Messages of support had come from the president of Taiwan and the prime minister of Bhutan, and more than eleven thousand people had signed an online petition expressing their gratitude for our work. At the precise moment that we completed our conference resolutions, a clap of thunder resounded loudly overhead.

From start to finish, everything had gone auspiciously, and there were indications of greater collaboration among translators than ever before. In his closing remarks, Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche told us that the conference had made the importance of translating the Kangyur and Tengyur more vivid and obvious. This itself, he said, had been a genuine accomplishment. In a manner befitting the heirs of the Rimé movement, the lamas had argued for a shifting of priorities, and we had all been convinced. The decision to host the conference in India now made perfect sense: we were, in every way, returning to the source of the Dharma.

This article was first published in View: The Rigpa Journal Summer 2009 edition, available here (in the US) and here (in Europe). Photos courtesy of the Deer Park Institute and Matthieu Ricard.

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I have just returned to Nepal from the Translating the Words of the Buddha conference in Bir, India. The proceedings were well documented and posted on the conference’s Facebook page and here. There was also a report in the Bhutanese media, here on Kuensel Online.

In the coming days and weeks, I will be posting some links and bits & pieces here on this site, especially those falling in the category of ‘tools and resources’, but let’s begin the process by adding the list of participants, with links to their affiliated sites and homepages:

Alexander Berzin: Berzin Archives

John Canti: Padmakara Translation Group

Ane Kunga Chodron: George Washington University / Tsechen Kunchab Ling

Joshua W.C. Cutler: Tibetan Buddhist Learning Center

Cortland J. Dahl: Rime Foundation / Tergar Institute / Dharmachakra Translation

Catherine Dalton: Rangjung Yeshe Institute / Dharmachakra Translation

Jake Dalton: University of California, Berkeley / International Dunhuang Project

Tyler Dewar: Nalandabodhi / Nitartha

Lama Doboom Tulku: Tibet House (India)

Andreas Doctor: Rangjung Yeshe Institute / Dharmachakra Translation

Gyurme Dorje

John Dunne: Emory University / Mind & Life Institute

Wulstan Fletcher: Padmakara Translation Group

Jessie Friedman: Light of Bertosana

Steven Goodman: California Institute of Integral Studies

Khenpo Kalsang Gyaltsen: Tsechen Kunchab Ling

Ani Jinba Palmo (Eugenie De Jong): Shechen Monastery / Khampagar Monastery

Gavin Kilty: Institute of Tibetan Classics

David Kittelstrom: Wisdom Publications

Anne Carolyn Klein: Rice University / Dawn Mountain

Derek Kolleeny: TBRC / Nalanda Translation Committee

Gwenola Le Serrec: Padmakara Translation Group

Jakob Leschly: Siddhartha’s Intent / Khyentse Foundation

Jules Levinson: Light of Berotsana

David Lunsford: Bodhi Foundation

John McRae: Numata Center

Larry Mermelstein: Nalanda Translation Committee / Shambhala Publications

Michele Martin: TBRC / Shambhala Publications

Elizabeth Napper: Tibetan Nuns Project

Joan Nicell: FPMT

Paldor: Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center

Ani Lodro Palmo: Yeshe Nyingpo East

Adam Pearcey: Rigpa Shedra / Lotsawa House

Matthieu Ricard: Shechen Monastery / Padmakara / Homepage

Marcia B. Schmidt: Rangjung Yeshe Publications

Peter Skilling: Fragile Palm Leaves Foundation

Gene Smith: Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center

D. Phillip Stanley: Naropa University / Nitartha Institute / Tibetan and Himalayan Library /  The Tibetan Buddhist Canonical Collections Catalog Project

Robert Thurman: Tibet House / Columbia University / American Institute of Buddhist Studies / Homepage

Martijn van Beek: University of Aarhus

Jeff Watt: Shelley and Donald Rubin Foundation / Sakya Resource Guide

Christian K. Wedemeyer: University of Chicago Divinity School / Homepage

Scott Wellenbach: Nalanda Translation Committee / Nitartha Institute

Thomas Yarnall: Columbia University / American Institute of Buddhist Studies

Yesterday I had the good fortune to attend the Rangjung Yeshe Institute’s Symposium on Buddhism Translated. The speeches by John Dunne, Tom Tillemans and Sara McClintock were every bit as stimulating  as I had anticipated, and each one of them brilliant in its own way. They also provided plenty of pointers to further research material, which is what I would like to highlight here. Dr. John Dunne, for example, during his lively power-point enhanced examination of mindfulness made reference to a wonderful article by Jay Garfield entitled Translation as Transmission and Transformation, which is available online here and highly recomended. Professor Tom Tillemans led us through an enlightening investigation of why translation often fails, with particular reference to problems in translating texts on logic and epistemology (Skt. pramāṇa), during which he referred, among many other sources, to Quine’s famous thesis on the indeterminacy of translation, an important idea although widely dismissed and regarded by many, including Tillemans, as extreme. For her part, Dr. Sara McClintock introduced the brilliant Umberto Eco’s theories on the role of the reader into her lucid discussion of the importance of narrative in Buddhism.

Hopefully it will not be too long before the lectures appear online.

According to this news from Dharamshala, a group of scholars, under the guidance of Ven. Lhakdor, the director of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, met for several days recently as part of a so-called Tibetan Terminology Project with the aim of standardizing the Tibetan translations of modern scientific and technical terms (see, for example, this page from the School). In the course of eight days, they standardized around two thousand terms.

The 6th Annual Symposium of Buddhist Studies at the Centre for Buddhist Studies and Rangjung Yeshe Institute will be on the topic of Buddhism Translated: Language, Transmission and Transformation. Among the speakers will be Dr. Tom Tillemans (Lausanne University), Dr. John Dunne (Emory University), Dr. Sara McClintock (Emory University), and Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche (Ka-Nying Shedrub Ling Monastery). It will be held at the Hyatt Regency in Boudhanath, Kathmandu on December 13, 2008, from 10 am – 6 pm.

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There will be several conferences for lotsawas in the coming months, but the first will be held in September in Boulder, Colorado, and is being organized by Light of Berotsana. Several lamas will be attending, including Zenkar Rinpoche, Tulku Thondup, Ringu Tulku and Dzigar Kongtrul Rinpoche. The details are now available online at this location.

© 2011 Lotsāwa School Suffusion theme by Sayontan Sinha