lkog gyur hidden object

skyed byed kyi rgyu causes of production (Pad)

khyad chos specific property (Pad)

khyad par distinction (GGD)

khyad gzhi basis of predication (GGD), specific basis (Pad)

khyab pa pervasion, entailment

dgag pa negation

dgag bya object of negation

?gal ba opposition, antithesis (Pad)

rgyu mtshan reason, sign

brgyud ?gal indirect antithesis (Pad)

sgra don object indicated by words

sgra spyi term universal (GGD)

sgrub pa affirmation

bsgrub bya probandum

nges shes ascertaining consciousness (GGD)

dngos ?gal direct antithesis (Pad)

dngos po thing, causally efficient thing (Pad)

dngos med absence, nonthing

dngos yul direct object

mngon gyur evident

mngon sum (direct) perception

bcad shes subsequent cognition

?jug yul object of application (GGD); operational object (MK)

rjes khyab forward pervasion

rjes ?gro positive concomitance (GGD)

rjes dpag inference

brjod byed signifier (GGD)

brjod bya signified (GGD)

gtan tshigs reason

btags yod nominally existent (GGD)

rtags evidence, sign

rtags ltar snang incorrect evidence

rtags yang dag correct evidence

rtog bcas conceptual

rtog med non-conceptual

tha snyad convention

tha dad distinct

the tshom doubt

dam bca? thesis

de byung ?brel ba causal relation, relation of provenance (Pad)

de ma thag pa?i rkyen preceding condition

don object, referent

don ?gal factual opposites

don gcig equivalent

don chos real property

don ldog meaning distinguisher (GGD)

don spyi mental image (Pad); generic image (JH); object universal (GGD); objective generality (MK)[i]

dran shes recollection

bdag po?i rkyen dominant condition (Pad), ruling condition, empowering condition (GGD)

bdag gcig ?brel ba relation of identical nature (GGD), relation of single nature (Pad)

bdags gzhi basis of designation (GGD)

bden grub real, really existent

?dus byas conditioned, compounded phenomenon

ldog khyab negative pervasion, counter pervasion

ldog pa isolate (Pad); distinguisher (GGD)

ldog pa gcig identical distinguisher

ldog pa tha dad distinct distinguisher

rnam gcod preclusion (GGD & Pad); elimination

rnam pa aspect

rnam par bzhag ?jog gi rgyu causes for the positing of something (Pad)

snang yul appearing object; apparent object (MK)

snang la ma nges inattentive cognition (GGD)

spyi universal

spyi ldog general distinguisher (GGD)

spyi mtshan generally characterized phenomenon (GGD)

phan tshun spangs ?gal antithesis of mutual exclusion (Pad)

phyogs thesis

phyogs chos property of the position

blo ?gal mental or attitudinal opposites (Pad)

dbye chos elements of a division

dbye gzhi basis of a division

?brel ba relation

sbyor ba formal argument, syllogism, probative argument[ii]

med pa gzhan sel nonexistent elimination

med pa gsal snang unreal appearances (MK)

dmigs rkyen object condition (GGD)

dmigs pa observation

tshad ma valid cognition; verifying cognition (RT); logic and epistemology

tshul gsum threefold criteria

tshogs spyi collection universal

mtshan nyid defining characteristic

mtshan gzhi illustration, basis of definition (Pad)

mtshon bya defined object; definiendum; name (Pad)

?dzin stangs kyi yul apprehended object

rdzas substance

rdzas gcig substantially identical

rdzas gcig la ldog pa tha dad distinct within being the same substance (GGD)

rdzas yod substantially existent   

zhen yul conceived object (GGD and Padmakara); object of intellection (MK)

gzhan sel (Skt. apoha) elimination of other; other exclusion

gzhal bya object of apprehension

gzhi substratum, basis

gzhi grub established basis

gzhi mthun common locus

gzhi ldog basis distinguisher

gzung yul held object (GGD); apprehended object (MK)

yang dag shes pa correct cognition

yid ches rjes dpag inference from conviction

yid dpyod correct assumption (GGD)

yul object

yul nges pa spatially determinate (GGD)

yul can subject

yul ma ?dres pa spatially determinate (GGD)

yongs gcod positive inclusion; exclusive establishment; detection (Pad)

rang ldog own distinguisher

rang mtshan specifically characterized phenomenon (GGD)

rang rig self-perception, apperception

rigs type

rigs mthun pa similar type

rigs spyi type universal (GGD)

rlom tshod kyi chos can conceived subject (GGD)

rlom tshod kyi rtags conceived reason (GGD)

log pa distinguished phenomenon

log shes false cognition

shin tu lkog gyur thoroughly hidden

shes bya knowable phenomena

shes bya?i yul epistemological object (MK)

sel ba elimination

song tshod kyi chos can actual subject (GGD)

song tshod kyi rtags actual reason (GGD)

lhan cig mi gnas ?gal ba antithesis of simultaneous incompatibility (Pad)


Key to Abbreviations


GGD  Geshe Georges Dreyfus

JH  Jeffrey Hopkins

MK  Matthew Kapstein

Pad  Padmakara Translation Group

RT  Robert Thurman

[i]  Kapstein (2000) says: "The term 'objective generality' (don spyi) is defined in a great many ways by later Tibetan thinkers. Recent interpreters of tibetan scholastic documents have sometimes used here the term 'generic image', but I think we should be on our guard lest we assimilate the concept to one of mental imagery. (p.91)


[ii] Dreyfus, The Sound of Two hands Clapping (p.206):

In Indian logic, the favourite tool is the statement of proof, which is sometimes described by modern scholars as a syllogism. Others [i.e. Tillemans] have argued against the use of this term in Indian logic. The main point here is not that the term syllogism is necessarily inappropriate in the Indian context, but that an Indian argument is not identical to an Aristotelian syllogism. To avoid any confusion, I use the translations ?proof statement? or ?probative argument? (often abbreviated to ?argument?).