FORMLESS REALM (gzugs med khams)


Four Perception Spheres (skye mched mu bzhi)

Neither Existence Nor Non-existence (yod min med min)

Nothing Whatsoever (ci yang med pa)

Infinite Consciousness (rnam shes mtha? yas)

Infinite Space (nam mkha? mtha? yas)



FORM REALM (gzugs khams)

Seventeen Heavens of the Form Realm (gzugs khams gnas ri bcu bdun)


Five Pure Heavens (gtsang gnas lnga)

Akanishtha/Unexcelled (?og min)

Extreme Insight/Great Vision (shin tu mthong)

Perfect Appearance/The Marvellous (gya nom snang ba)

The Painless/Without Distress (mi gdung pa)

The Slightest/Not So Great (mi che ba)


Fourth Dhyana (bsam gtan bzhi pa)

Great Fruition (?bras bu che)

Increasing Merit (bsod nams ?phel)

Cloudless (sprin med)


Third Dhyana (bsam gtan gsum pa)

Most Extensive Virtue (dge rgyas)

Immeasurable Virtue (tshad med dge)

Lesser Virtue (dge chung)


Second Dhyana (bsam gtan gnyis pa)

Clear Radiance (?od gsal)

Immeasurable Radiance (tshad med ?od)

Lesser Radiance (?od chung)


First Dhyana (bsam gtan dang po)

Great Brahma (tshangs pa chen po)

Priests of Brahma (tshangs pa mdun na ?don)

Heaven of Brahma (tshangs ris)



DESIRE REALM (?dod khams)

The Six God Realms within the Desire Realm (?dod lha rigs drug)

Mastery Over Others? Emanations (gzhan ?phrul dbang byed)

Delighting in Emanation (?phrul dga?)

The Joyful/Joyous (dga? ldan, Skt. Tushita)

Without Conflict/Strifeless (?thab bral)

Heaven of the Thirty-Three (sum cu rtsa gsum pa)

The Four Great Kings (rgyal chen bzhi?i ris)


Demi-God/Asura Realm (lha ma yin)


Human Realm (mi)

Majestic Body (lus ?phags) (East)

Jambudvipa/Rose Apple Continent (?dzam bu gling) (South)

Enjoyer of Cattle/Bountiful Cow (ba glang spyod) (West)

Unpleasant Sound (sgra mi snyan) (North)


Animal Realm (dud ?gro)

Animals living in the depths (bying na gnas pa)

Animals scattered in different places (kha ?thor ba)


Preta/Hungry Ghost Realm (yi dvags)

Pretas Suffering from External Obscurations (phyi?i sgrib pa can)

Pretas Suffering from Internal Obscurations (nang gi sgrib pa can)

Pretas Suffering from Specific Obscurations (sgos khur gyi sgrib pa can)

Pretas Who Move Through Space (mkha? la rgyu ba)


Eighteen Hell Realms (dmyal khams bco brgyad)


The Ephemeral Hells (nyi tshe ba)

(no fixed location)


Eight Cold Hells (grang dmyal brgyad)

Hell of Blisters (chu bur can)

Hell of Burst Blisters (chu bur rdol ba)

Hell of Clenched/Chattering Teeth (so tham pa)

Hell of Lamentations (a chu zer ba)

Hell of Groans (kyi hud zer ba)

Hell of Utpala-like Cracks (utpala ltar gas pa)

Hell of Lotus-like Cracks (padma ltar gas pa)

Hell of Great Lotus-like Cracks (padma chen po ltar gas pa)


Eight Hot Hells (tsha dmyal brgyad)

Reviving Hell (yang sos)

Black Line Hell (thig nag)

Rounding Up and Crushing Hell (bsdus ?joms)

Howling Hell (ngu ?bod)

Great Howling Hell (ngu ?bod che ba)

Heating Hell (tsha ba)

Intense Heating Hell (rab tu tsha ba)

Avichi, Hell of Ultimate Torment (mnar med)


The Neighbouring Hells (nye ?khor)

Pit of burning embers (me ma mur gyi ?obs)

Swamp of putrifying corpses (ro myags kyi ?dam)

Plain of razor blades (spu gri?i thang)

Forest of sword blades (ral gri?i tshal)

Hill of iron shalmali trees (lcags kyi shal ma li)